Biography SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE
Mahatma Gandhi described subhash Chandra Bose as Patriot of patriots subhash Chandra Bose popularly known as Netaji occupied an honourable position in the history of Indian Independence Movement. He was a man of great courage and dedicated leader completely filled with patriotism. He wanted to free India from British Raj not by peaceful means or petitioning but by waging open war.
Subhash Chandra was born on 23rd January 1897 in cuttack as the ninth child among fourteen of janakinath Bose an advocate and Prabhavati Devi a pious and orthodox lady. He was a brilliant student and topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province and passed his BA in philosophy from the presidency college in Kolkata.
He was strongly influenced by swami Vivekananada teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. Due to his parents wishes he remained away from the Indian freedom struggle and they sent him to England for the preparation of Indian civil Services.
He ranked fourth in the ICS examination and was selected but was selected but he did not want to work under any foreign government. He resigned from the civil service job on 23rd April 1921 and returned to India. He came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National congress.
Gandhi ji directed him to work with Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das. the Bengali Leader whom Bose acknowledged as his political guru. While Chittaranjan Das was busy in developing the national strategy Subhash Chandra played a major role in enlightening the student youth and labourers of Calcutta. He was eagerly waiting to see India as an independent federal and republic nation. He was the leader of the youth wing of the congress party in the forefront of the trade union movement in India and organized service league another wing of congress. He was admired for his great skills in organizational development.
Bose advocated complete freedom for India at the earliest whereas the congress Committee wanted it in phases through a dominion status. Other younger leaders including Jawaharlal Nehru supported Bose and finally at the historic Lahore Congress Convention the congress had to adopt Poorna swaraj (complete Freedom) as its motto. Bhagat Singh’s Martyrdom and the inability of the congress leaders to save his life infuriated Bose and he started a movement opposing the Gandhi-Irwin peace pact.
He was imprisoned and expelled from India. But defying the ban he came back to India and was imprisoned again. Bose warned the Indian people and the British against dragging India into the war as the situations of a second world war emerged in late 1930.
He was elected president of the Indian National Congress twice in 1937 and in 1939 the second time defeating Gandhi ji preferred candidate Pattahi Sitaramayya. But Gandhi ji took it as his own defeat and Subhash Chandra was forced to resign from the President post due to the tension emerged in the congress working committee.
He resigned from the post of president and formed a progressive group known as the forward bloc (1939).The second world war broke out in september 1939 and just as predicted by Bose India was declared as a warring state by the British Government without the consent of Indian leaders.
The congress party was in power in seven major states and all state Government resigned in protest. Subhash Chandra Bose then started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and Indian army personnel in this war. To him it made no sense to shed the blood of Indians for the sake of colonial and imperial nations.
There was a tremendous response to his call and the British promptly imprisoned him. He took to a hunger-strike and when his health deteriorated on the 11th day of fasting he was freed and placed under house arrest.
The British were afraid of violent burst of reaction in India if something would happen to Bose in prison. Bose suddenly disappeared in from his house on 19th January 1941 and it was not until many days that authorities realized that Bose was not in the house they were guarding. He first went to Gomoh in Bihar and from there he went on to Peshawar.
He finally reached Germany and met Hitler. Bose had been living together with his wife Emilie Schenkl in Berlin. In November 1941 his broadcast from german radio sent shock waves among the British and shocked the Indian masses who realized that leader was working on a master plan to free their motherland.
The axis power (mainly germany) assured Bose military and other help to fight the British. Japan by this time had grown into another strong world power occupying key colonies of the Dutch the French and the British in asia. Bose had struck alliance with Germany and Japan. He rightly felt that his prensence in the East would help his countrymen in freedom struggle. In July 1943 He Arrived in Singapore from Germany.
In Singapore he took over the responsibility of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose and organized the Azad Hind fauj (Indian National army) comprising mainly of Indian prisoners of wars with Japanese support INA freed the Andaman and Nicobar Island from the British and were renamed as swaraj and shaheed islands INA entered on the Indian mainland and captured Kohima and Imphal they were now inside India and were determined to drive out the British. But the bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Changed the history of mankind Japan had to surrender.
The defeat of Japan and Germany in the second world war forced INA to retreat and it could not achieve its objectives Bose gave slogan to his army ‘Delhi Chalo’ and ‘jai Hindi’. He had inspired his army men through his great words “Give me blood and I will give you freedom’’ to make his motherland free from the rule of Britishers.
It is said that Netaji subhash Chandra Bose died in a plane crash in 1945. The Bad news of his death had ended all the hopes of Indian National Army to fight from British rule. Even after his death. he is still alive with his vibrant nationalism in the hearts of Indian people as an everlasting inspiration. The great works and contributions towards mother land and great leadership earned him the title of ‘Netaji. He is an unforgettable hero of the Indian freedom struggle and will always be remembered for his bravery.