BIOGRAPHY OF SAROJINI NAIDU,
THE NIGHTINGALE OF INDIA
Sarojini Naidu was a Renowed political activist feminist poet and the first Indian woman to become president of the Indian National Congress and also the first woman Governor of a state (Uttar Pradesh) In India. She was also called the Nightingale of India or Bharatiya Kokila because her poems are rich in imagery and have much rhetorical gesturing for an ideal love. She also had a melodious voice. For these reasons she was called as the Nightingale of India Sarojini Naidu was born in a Bengali Brahmin family in Hyderabad on 13th February 1879. Her father Aghornath Chattopadhayaya was a scientist and philosopher and her mother Barada Sundari Devi was a poetess who used to write poetry in Bengali.
At the age of twelve she topped the presidency in the matriculation examination from the university of madras. She was a brilliant student who was very proficient in Urdu Bengali English Telugu and Persian. Although Sarojini’s father wanted her to be a Mathematician She was interested in poetry. She took a break from studies for four years but kept writing poems and plays owing to her interest. Impressed by her poems and Persian play Maher muneer the Nizam of Hyderabad gave her the chance to study abroad. In1895 she was admitted in kings college London and then in Girton college Cambridge.
During her stay in England she met famous and Nobel laureates Arthur simon (a poet and critic) and Edward Gausse. Edward convinced Sarojini to stick to Indian themes and life to express her poetry and simon persuaded her to publish her poems. Her collection of poems were published under the title –The Golden Threshold (1905) The Bird of Time (1912) and the Broken wings (1912). These publications attracted a lot of Indian and English scholar Sarojini wrote the poem in English scholar. Sarojini wrote the poems in English but her work reflected Indian culture values beliefs and traditions. Many prominent politicians and in fluencies personalities like Aurobindo Ghosh Rabindranath Tagore and Jawaharlal Nehru were among the many admirers of her work. At the age of nineteen Sarojini and Govinddarajulu faced opposition for their marriage as at that time inter-caste marriages were not allowed but sarojini’s Father supported them in this revolutionary step. Sarojini Naidu was not only a distinguished poet but also a renowned freedom fighter. Naidu joined Indian National Movement in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905 where she met Gopal Krishna Gokhale Rabindranath Tagore Muhammad Ali Jinnah Annie Besant Cp Ramaswami Iyer Mahatama Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
From 1915 to 1918 she travelled to different places to awaken the women of India to advocate for their rights She re-established self –esteem in them by delivering lectures on social welfare women empowerment and nationalism. Sarojini actively campaigned for the Montagu –Chelmsford Reforms the Khilafat issue the Rowlatt Act the Sabarmati pact the satya graha pledge and the Civil Disobedience.
In 1919 she went to England as a member of the All-India Home Rule Deputation After 1920 She toured widely as the president of the Bombay Provincial Congress committee opposed council entry in Kolkata and pro-tested Congress Committee opposed council entry in Kolkata and protested against the anti-Moplah measures in Calicut. from 1922-26 she espoused the cause of Indians in South Africa. In 1925 Sarojini Naidu presided over the annual session of India National Congress.
She took part in the Salt Satyagraha. She was one of the women protesters at the Darsana Salt works Gujarat. In 1931 she participated in the Round Table Conference in London with Gandhi and Madan Mohan Malaviya and campaigned for participation of women and youth in the public life. she played a leading role during the civil Disobedience Movement and was jailed along with Gandhi and other leaders. She organized a National week in 1940 rallied against Cripps Mission to India. Again she was jailed in 1942 for 21 months for active participation in the Quit India Resolution of the AICC In Bombay. After Independence she became the first woman Governor of Uttar Pradesh. Her president ship of the Asian Relations Conference in 1947 was also remarkable.
On 2nd March,1949 (aged seventy) she took her last breath and of a heart attack in her office at Lucknow. India not only lost her nightingale but also a fighter by heart. Her notable contribution is written in golden words in the history of Indian Independence. She is also commemorated through the naming of several institutions including the sarojini Naidu College of woman Sarojini Naidu medical college sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and sarojini Naidu school of Arts and commerce university of Hyderabad.