BIOGRAPHY OF PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
THE ARCHITECT OF MODERN INDIA’
India’s first prime minister pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, was born on 14th November,1889 in Allahabad. His father Motilal Nehru, was a wealthy barrister belonged to Kashmiri pandit community who was a prominent leader of the congress party served twice as president of Indian National congress. His mother was Swaruprani Thussu, belongs to a well known Kashmiri Brahmin family. Nehru was the eldest of three children, two of whom were girls. His elder sister was renowned politician Vijay Lakshmi Pandit and younger sister Krishna Hutheesing was writer. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was tutored at home by private governess until the age of sixteen. While being home–schooled, Nehru was interested in science and theosophy which did not prove to be enduring in the following years. He then attended trinity college, Cambridge where he graduated with an honors degree in natural sciences in 1910. After graduating, he studied law at Inner temple in London before returning home in 1912. In India, he practiced law for several year. During the first World War Nehru spoke out against the censorship Acts passed by the British Government in India.
He became involved with aggressive nationalists leader who demanded ‘Home rule’ for Indians. In 1916, he married ‘Kamla Kaul and had his only child ‘Indira priyadarshini’ in 1917, who later served as the prime minister of India under her married name ‘Indira Gandhi’. Nehrus’ family was a family of achievers, one of his sisters, Vijay laxmi pandit, also became the first woman president of UN General Assembly. while practicing law for sometime, Nehru attended an Indian National congress party meeting where he met Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi for the first time There after, their lives were entwined, though they differed on several points, largely because of nehru’s international out look clashed with gandhi’s simple Indian outlooks and orthodox views. The turning point in his life came in 1919, when he overheard General Dyer gloating over the Jallianwala Bagh. This point he vowed to fight against the British.
Regardless of the criticism, he was one of the most influential leaders in freedom struggle. Nehru for the first time involved in the big National movement in 1920. He led the movement in the united province (Now Uttar Pradesh ). He was the pioneering supporter of Asian resurgence and an unusually idealistic advocate of consciences in international politics.
Younger Nehru became a leader of more radical wing of the congress party and in 1929, he was elected as the party president. Demands for dominion status was rejected by the British in 1929. Nehru introduced a successful resolution calling for complete independence. He drafted the India declaration of independence. He drafted the India declaration of independence, where he stated,’’ India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or completed Independence.’’ At midnight on new year evening 1929, Nehru hoisted the tricolor flag of India upon the banks of the river Ravi in Lahore. After the Lahore session of the congress in 1929, Nehru emerged as the most prominent leader in Indian politics. The British repeatedly arrested him for civil Disobedience strikes and other political actions, he spent half of his next 18 years in jail for supporting Indian National movement for freedom from British rule since 1929, Nehru celebrated the policies of the congress and a future Indian nation under his leadership.
He declared that the aims of the congress were freedom of religion, right to form association, freedom of expression of thought, equality before law, abolition of untouchability introduction of adult franchise, establishment of socialist and secular India. During his second term as the General secretary of the congress he proposed the future foreign policy of India. He developed good relations with governments all over the world. He firmly placed India. He developed good relations with governments all over the world. He firmly placed India on the side of democracy when a large portion of the world was under the threat of fascism.
Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested in 1942 during Quit India movement and released in 1945, he took a lead role in the negotiations to determine the dominions of India and Pakistan. When the British Began to prepare for withdrawal from India, he was invited to form an interim government to organise the transition from dependency to Independence.
Nehru initially Attempted to prevent the partition of India into separate Hindu and Muslim states. But a separate Muslim state know as Pakistan was founded. In August 1947, following the final withdrawal of the British and the establishment of India as a self –governing dominion within the common wealth Nehru became the first elected prime minister. He continued in that post when India became a republic in 1950 and returned to office for thrice until his death on 27th may,1964 ,in Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, wanted to build the country. A truly democratic and peace loving nation. The speech, he delivered to the constituent Assembly in New Delhi at midnight on 14th August, 1947 reflected his vision and views. He carried India into the modern age of scientist innovation and technological progress. He also prompted social concerns for the marginalised and the poor. He successfully reformed Hindu civil code.
Nehru’s four pillars of domestics policies were democracy, socialism, unity and secularism. He largely succeeded in maintaining a strong foundation of all four during his tenure. Nehru’s administration established many Indian Institution of higher learning including the All India institute of medical sciences, India Institutes of technology and national institute of technology .
As a Prime Minister, he was fully involved in carrying out India’s five year plans and pursuing a policy of peaceful coexistence with nations of every political identify. Nehru’s writing include letters published under the titles glimpses of world History letters to chief minister, The Discovery of India, An auto biography; towards freedom, letters from a father to his Daughter etc.
He was one of the nationalists who put their life and comfort at stake for the cause of freedom. He is known as the father of institutional democracy and as an architect of Indian Policy in all manifestation and as the longest serving Prime Minister of India (1946-64).While serving his country, he took iconic status for the development of the country and was widely admired internationality for his idealism and statesmanship.
His birthday 14th November is celebrated in India as Baal divas (children’s day) in recognition of his lifelong passion and work on behalf of children and young people. He loved children very much and called was “Chacha Nehru by them ‘’it was Jawaharlal Nehru who held aloft India’s banner of independence and led India to glory”. Nehru will always be remembered fondly by the Indians.